The Development of thinking of children 4-6 years
The development is mainly characterized by qualitative changes, the appearance of tumors, new mechanisms, new processes, new structures. The most important signs of development, it is differentiation, the early dismemberment of the former integral unit; the emergence of new parties, new elements in the development; restructuring of the relations between the parties object. There are many types of development, so it is important to find a place among them occupies the mental development of the child, i.e. to define the specific features of mental development among other development processes.
Many psychologists have studied the relationships between the thought of the child and reality, which is known as the subject. They recognized that the object exists independently of the subject. But in order to know objects, the subject must act with them and thus transform them to move, associate, combine, delete, and again to return. At all stages the development of cognition is constantly linked with the activities or operations, that is, transformations, transformations of the object.
The problem of knowledge cannot be considered separately from the problems of the development of intelligence. It boils down to the analysis of how the subject is able to perceive objects more adequately, that is how he becomes capable of objectivity. Objectivity is not given to the child from the beginning, according to empiricists, and for its understanding, piaget, required a series of structures, approximations to it.
For several years the main efforts of scientists who have studied the cognitive processes of children of preschool age, were concentrated mainly on the study of two problems. One of them is the problem of the development of perceptual processes. The research appeared fundamental work, comprehensively and deeply illuminating this issue. The second problem is the problem of formation of conceptual thinking preschoolers. In the works of leading psychologists revealed the main regularities of formation of mental actions and concepts in preschool children. Much less developed is the problem of the development of clearly-effective and visual thinking preschoolers, as well as the problem of transition from pre-concept of forms of thinking and conceptual. Important materials on this issue are contained in the works of A.V. Zaporozhets, L. A. Wenger, A. A. Lublin, Minsk G. I., I. S. Yakimanskaya and others. However, still not well understood functions of practical action, in the visual-active thinking, the main features of formation and functioning of visual thinking.
The aim of this work is to theoretically study the peculiarities of the development of thinking of children 4-6 years old.
1) to identify features of the development of thinking 4-6 years;
2) to consider the approaches of the various theories about the peculiarities of development of thinking of children 4-6 years old.
The object of this work is the child of 4-6 years.
The subject of the work – the thinking of a child 4-6 years.
Chapter 1. Some General issues of development of thinking of children 4-6 years
In a number of psychological and pedagogical research identified opportunities targeted formation at children of preschool age generalized knowledge and methods of mental activity. Typically, this formation at all stages was carried out by adults [P. Y. Galperin, 1969; N. F. Talyzina, 1969; D. B. Elkonin, 1970; etc.].
Much less studied is the question of self “obtaining” pre-schoolers of new information, knowledge about the surrounding objects, the self-improvement of the methods of its practical and cognitive activity.
There is an assumption that the basis for the creative activity of preschoolers is a specific structure of knowledge and mental actions of the child, which ensures the diversity of the interaction of the newly formed knowledge with the knowledge available in the past experiences of the child. This leads to a significant, consistently complex reconstructions, those and other knowledge, to acquire new knowledge. “So, our research suggests that the assimilation of children knowledge systems that reflect a particular object in different, often contradictory aspects, provides flexibility, dynamism children’s thinking, the possibility of obtaining new knowledge and ways of mental activity”.
The process of thinking is often seen as a movement from ignorance to knowledge, from obscure to clear, unclear, indistinct to distinct. However, this is only one side of a full-fledged process of thinking. The second side is opposite to the movement—from the clear, distinct, certain to incomprehensible, indistinct, uncertain. Vague, indistinct knowledge should not be seen as a lack of thinking, which should be combated, and as an organic continuation of a distinct clear knowledge, as the most important result of the formation and development of clear knowledge.
Any knowledge is definitely only in the known range (area), beyond the boundary of this area certainty disappears and more and more clearly is the relativity of knowledge. In other words, the mastery of the child certain knowledge, his ascent to a new level of mental development allows him to comprehend the new, still not quite clear horizons of knowledge. He having vague outlines of the new connections and relationships in one or another sphere of reality, i.e. both appear obscure knowledge, guesses and questions.