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for anybody not a secret that our age is rapid. Perhaps that is why young parents, fearing to be late, hurry immediately after the birth of the baby to plan his future and solve the following problems: how old to sit with the child at home, whether to give him in a manger, whether to hire a nanny, what age do I have to invite specialists in early education of the child, which school to give to learn which universities will be worthy to receive the child after the end of the 11th grade. The above problems are not far-fetched, they have overcome almost all moms and dads, grandmothers and grandfathers. Solving them, it is difficult to consider many variables that make up our lives. All parents, trying to plan in advance and facilitate the child’s life, somehow believe that their child will be a genius: it will grow by leaps and bounds, possibly, will show musical ability, intellectual or artistic talent, brilliantly graduate…
However, everything in life, unfortunately, is much harder and more prosaic, and not always our dreams come true. But whatever it was, before almost all young parents face the question: to teach or not to teach the child? And most importantly, where to begin? A year, two, three?
There are many views on the problem of early child development: some experts believe that child up to 3 years no need to learn anything – he needs freedom. Would be good child care, and all the rest will come to him over the years. Others believe that teaching your child can and should, but only subtly in the game, given the possibility of age kid. Still others argue that child up to three years should give as much new information in all fields of knowledge (history, geography, art history, etc.). There are teachers and psychologists who suggest they have developed an hourly grid activities with the child, in which it is planned to train a child with one and a half years of two foreign languages (two times a week each), mathematics, computer literacy, etc.
What approach should be followed in raising the kid?
Let’s try to trace the development of cognitive sphere of the child, and then decide: what to teach and the first place, and can be, and do not teach at all. Learn by itself! The development of cognitive processes of the young child is rapid: rapidly developing attention, memory, perception, thinking, etc. But, as the eminent psychologist of the twentieth century L. S. Vygotsky, the main, the dominant feature of this age is the perception. This means that the most successful child reaches that age is not in memory or thinking, and in the field of perception. That perception is a function of the mind, which must be developed in the first place.
What progress reaches the child in the field of perception?
Children of the second year of life can learn at the pictures of various objects on them in some detail (the color plays no role). But not always, children are able to relate with the actual object drawn, and that they should be taught. So, for example, by reading books to children, the mother can ask the question: “Who is it?” – reply: “Bunny”, and then show toy Bunny: “Bunny in the picture and Bunny in my hands”. Later, the question “who is this?” the child will answer for himself.
The perception of the young child is largely different from the perception of a preschooler. Try an experiment: in the eyes of a child to disassemble a pyramid and asked to collect it back. First, the child will act at random and unlikely without the help of an adult come to the right decision. The story was improved, it is possible to offer not only a pyramid, but a set of bowls in different sizes, so he inserted one into the other, nesting dolls, etc. Playing with these toys, the child will soon realize that objects differ in shape and in magnitude, the bowl cannot be put on the pin of the pyramid, and that little thing can easily fit in a large.
Later, the child learns to distinguish objects by color, and we can help him. For example, a parent, a child showing two apples, says: “This is a yellow Apple, and it is red. Give me yellow!” As noted by psychologist V. S. Mukhina, the child of the third year of life can absorb up to eight colors.
The development of perception will contribute to the game “One bug, two bug”, “Help the animals”, “Delicious tea” and others. Parents can and do come up with a lot of games and put them in the context of life events and situations. And if the child is in the period of early childhood is firmly mastered such concepts as “big”, “small”, “round”, “square”, “red”, “yellow”, “green”, “blue”, etc. and then to learn later knowledge in school it will be much easier.
Speaking of cognitive sphere of the baby, it should be noted that the role of perception in the development process of memory, thinking and attention is also extremely high.
The memory of the young child is always related to active perception – recognition. If half-year-old child can learn only close to the range of subjects and people that constantly communicates, the child to the end of the second year of life may know what you saw or heard a few weeks ago. The child of the second year of life can already remember the simplest musical tunes and sing them. The development of attention in early age is in the process of development of walking and speech. As soon as the child begins to walk, expands the scope of items that he can explore on their own, which in turn contributes to the development of attention. The baby can now consider not only what is around him, but that alone can get off the shelves, pull out cabinets, take off the table. Thus, the child learns to keep his attention on the various subjects that fall within his field of vision. At the moment when the child looks at something an adult can focus his attention on the details of the subject: “What a beautiful flower. Look what his little green leaves”.
Thinking the child develops in the process of handling a variety of subjects. If the baby needs a nursery close the pan with a lid, it will act by trial and error, find various caps and attach them to the pots until you find the right. Thinking the child begins to develop more rapidly with the development of speech. The kid asks questions, therefore, it already have any ideas about cause-effect relationships. Observation B. white (1982) show that one of the characteristics of a well developed three year old child is his ability to talk with an adult, as with their peers.
As language acquisition, the child varies greatly, it starts on a different attitude to the environment. 1 year and 2 months, the child begins to repeat the words of an adult on his own initiative. In the second year of life begins mastering the grammatical structure of the speech. 1 year 8 months 1 year 10 months a child’s speech appear two-word sentences. 2-3 years in sentences spoken by a child, there is consistency between the different parts.
Thus, in early childhood, it is first necessary to develop a child’s perception and speech (and definitely in a playful way, without forced and boring “lessons”). This opinion is shared by most of the leading educators and psychologists. Is our answer to the parents to the question: “to teach or not to Teach children aged from one year to three years?”.